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四川大学退职博士英语模仿试题

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  四川大学退职博士英语模仿试题
 

  退职博士测验都是院校自主命题的,因而考生在备考的时分也需求参考请求院校的备考材料,关于积年真题,考生也是不克不及放过。考生对真题要好好的研讨,琢磨出院校的出题重点,然后在停止针对性的备考。上面是退职研讨生网的招生教师汇总的四川大学退职博士英语模仿试题,盼望给考生带来肯定的协助。
 

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  1)Sign has become a scientific hot button. Only in the past 20 years have specialists in language study realized that signed languages are unique—a speech of the hand. They offer a new way to probe how the brain generates and understands language, and throw new light on an old scientific controversy: whether language, complete with grammar, is something that we are born With, or whether it is a learned behavior. The current interest in sign language has roots in the pioneering work of one rebel teacher at GallaudetUniversityin Washington, D. C., the world’s only liberal arts university for deaf people.

  When Bill Stokoe went to Gallaudet to teach English, the school enrolled him in a course in signing. But Stokoe noticed something odd: among themselves, students signed differently from his classroom teacher.

  Stokoe had been taught a sort of gestural code, each movement of the hands representing a word in English. At the time, American Sign Language (ASL) was thought to be no more than a form of pidgin English (稠浊英语). But Stokoe believed the “hand talk” his students used looked richer. He wondered: Might deaf people actually: have a genuine language? And could that language be unlike any other on Earth? It was 1955, when even deaf people dismissed their signing as “substandard”. Stokoe’s idea was academic heresy (妖言惑众).

  It is 37 years later. Stokoe—now devoting his time to writing and editing books and journals and to producing video materials on ASL and the deaf culture—is having lunch at a cafe near the Gallaudet campus and explaining how he started a revolution. For decades educators fought his idea that signed languages are natural languages like English, French and Japanese. They assumed language must be based on speech, the modulation (调理) of sound. But sign language is based on the movement of hands, the modulation of space. “What I said,” Stokoe explains, “is that language is not mouth stuff—it’s brain stuff.”

  21. The study of sign language is thought to be _____C___.

  A) a new way to look at the learning of language

  B) a challenge to traditional, views on the nature of language

  C) an approach: to simplifying the grammatical structure of a language

  D) an attempt to clarify misunderstanding about the origin of language(C)

  22. The, present growing interest in sign language was stimulated by ___C_____.

  A) a famous scholar in the study of the human brain

  B) a leading specialist in the study of liberal arts

  C) an English teacher in a university for the deaf

  D) some senior experts in American Sign Language(C)

  23. According to Stokoe, sign language is _____B___.

  A) a Substandard language

  B) a genuine language

  C) an artificial language

  D) an international language(B)

  24. Most educators objected to Stokoe’s idea because they thought _____D___.

  A) sign language was not extensively used even by deaf people

  B) sign language was too artificial to be widely accepted

  C) a language should be easy to use and understand

  D) a language could only exist in the form of speech sounds(D)

  25. Stokoe’s argument is based on his belief that ____D____.

  A) sign language is as efficient as any other language

  B) sign language is derived from natural language

  C) language is a system of meaningful codes

  D) language is a product of the brain(D)

  2)It was the worst tragedy in maritime history, six times more deadly than the Titanic. When the German cruise ship Wilhelm Gustloff was hit by torpedoes fired from a Russian submarine in the final winter of World War II, more than 10,000 people-mostly women, children and old people fleeing the final Red Army push into NaziGermany-were packed aboard. An ice storm had turned the decks into frozen sheets that sent hundreds of families sliding into the sea as the ship tilted and began to go down. Others desperately tried to put lifeboats down. Some who succeeded fought off those in the water who had the strength to try to claw their way aboard. Most people froze immediately. I’ll never forget the screams,” says Christa Ntitzmann, 87, one of the 1,200 survivors. She recalls watching the ship, brightly lit, slipping into its dark grave-and into seeming nothingness, rarely mentioned for more than half a century.

  NowGermany’s Nobel Prize-winning author Gtinter Grass has revived the memory of the 9,000 dead, including more than 4,000 children-with his latest novel Crab Walk, published last month. The book, which will be out in English next year, doesn’t dwell on the sinking; its heroine is a pregnant young woman who survives the catastrophe only to say later: “Nobody wanted to hear about it, not here in the West (ofGermany) and not at all in the East.” The reason was obvious. As Grass put it in a recent interview with the weekly Die Woche: “Because the crimes we Germans are responsible for were and are so dominant, we didn’t have the energy left to tell of our own sufferings.”

  The long silence about the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was probably unavoidable-and necessary. By unreservedly owning up to their country’s monstrous crimes in the Second World War, Germans have managed to win acceptance abroad, marginalize the neo-Nazis at home and make peace with their neighbors. Today’s unifiedGermanyis more prosperous and stable than at any time in its long, troubled history. For that, a half century of willful forgetting about painful memories like the German Titanic was perhaps a reasonable price to pay. But even the most politically correct Germans believe that they’ ye now earned the right to discuss the full historical record. Not to equate German suffering with that of its victims, but simply to acknowledge a terrible tragedy.

  31. Why does the author say the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was the worst tragedy in maritime history? (B)

  A) It was attacked by Russian torpedoes.

  B) It caused the largest number of casualties.

  C) Most of its passengers were frozen to death.

  D) Its victims were mostly women and children.

  32. Hundreds of families dropped into the sea when ___(A)_____.

  A) the badly damaged ship leaned toward one side

  B) a strong ice storm tilted the ship

  C) the cruise ship sank all of a sudden

  D) the frightened passengers fought desperately for lifeboats

  33. The Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy was little talked about for more than half a century because Germans _____(D)___.

  A) were eager to win international acceptance

  B) had been pressured to keep silent about it

  C) were afraid of offending their neighbors

  D) felt guilty for their crimes in World War II

  34. How does Gunter Grass revive the memory of the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy? (D)

  A) By describing the ship’s sinking in great detail.

  B) By giving an interview to the weekly Die Woche.

  C) By presenting the horrible scene of the torpedo attack.

  D) By depicting the survival of a young pregnant woman.

  35. It can be learned from the passage that Germans no longer think that ____(C)____.

  A) the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy is a reasonable price to pay for the nation’s past misdeeds

  B) Germany is responsible for the horrible crimes it committed in World War II

  C) they will be misunderstood if they talk about the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy

  D) it-is wrong to equate their sufferings with those of other countries

  )There are people in Italy who can’t stand soccer. Not all Canadians love hockey. A similar situation exists inAmerica, where there are those individuals you may be one of them who yawn or even frown when somebody mentions baseball. 『Baseball to them means boring hours watching grown men in funny tight outfits standing around in a field staring away while very little of anything happens.』① They tell you it’s a game better suited to the 19th century, slow, quiet, gentlemanly. These are the same people you may be one of them who love football because there’s the sport that glorifies “the hit”.

  By contrast, baseball seems abstract, cool, silent, still.

  On TV the game is fractured into a dozen perspectives, replays, closeups. The geometry of the game, however, is essential to understanding it. You will contemplate the game from one point as a painter does his subject; you may, of course, project yourself into the game. It is in this projection that the game affords so much space and time for involvement. The TV won’t do it for you.

  Take, for example, the third baseman. You sit behind the third base dugout and you watch him watching home plate. His legs are apart, knees flexed. His arms hang loose. He does a lot of this. The skeptic still cannot think of any other sports so still, so passive. 『But watch what happens every time the pitcher throws: the third baseman goes up on his toes, flexes his arms or bring the glove to a point in front of him, takes a step right or left, backward or forward, perhaps he glances across the field to check his first baseman’s position.』② Suppose the pitch is a ball. “Nothing happened,” you say. “I could have had my eyes closed.”

  The skeptic and the innocent must play the game. And this involvement in the stands is no more intellectual than listening to music is. Watch the third baseman. Smooth the dirt in front of you with one foot; smooth the pocket in your glove; watch the eyes of the batter, the speed of the bat, the sound of horsehide on wood. If football is a symphony of movement and theatre, baseball is chamber music, a spacious interlocking of notes, chores and responses.

  1. The passage is mainly concerned with .

  A. the different tastes of people for sports

  B. the different characteristics of sports

  C. the attraction of football

  D. the attraction of baseball

  2. Those who don’t like baseball may complain that .

  A. it is only to the taste of the old

  B. it involves fewer players than football

  C. it is not exciting enough

  D. it is pretentious and looks funny

  3. The author admits that .

  A. baseball is too peaceful for the young

  B. baseball may seem boring when watched on TV

  C. football is more attracting than baseball

  D. baseball is more interesting than football

  4. By stating “I could have had my eyes closed. ” the author means (4th paragraph last sentence):

  A. The third baseman would rather sleep than play the game.

  B. Even if the third baseman closed his eyes a moment ago, it could make no different to the result.

  C. The third baseman is so good at baseball that he could finish the game with eyes closed all the time and do his work well.

  D. The consequent was too bad he could not bear to see it.

  5. We can safely conclude that the author .

  A. likes footballB. hates football

  C. hates baseballD. likes baseball

  Vocabulary

  1. dugout n. 棒球场边供球员苏息的中央

  2. pitcher n. 投手

  3. symphony n. 交响乐

  4. chamber n. 室内

  5. contemplate vt.深思,凝视

  长难句剖析

  ①【剖析】此句的骨干是“Baseball…means…watching…”,此中“in funny tight outfits”用来修饰“grown men”,“standing…”和“staring”用来做“grown men”的定语。

  【译文】关于他们来说,棒球便是在无聊的几个小时中几个身着紧身衣的大人伫立在园地四周没事可做地东张西望。

  ②【剖析】这是一个复合句,“goes up…”,“flexes…”“takes…”,“glances…”做“the third baseman”的并列谓语。

  【译文】但每当投球手掷出球的那一霎时,你再看吧,三垒活动员脚尖点地,屈臂或把接球手套直指后方,左右挪动步调,或前或后,大概他还要越过园地盯着一垒球手的举措。

  答案与详解

  【漫笔粗心】本文次要报告垒球的特性及欣赏。

  1. D宗旨题。文章第一段简述了人们对垒球所持的成见——以为它毫无生机、沉着弛缓,不像橄榄球那样低潮迭起、令人冲动。文章的第二、三、四、五段讨论了垒球的基本特性及欣赏角度,文章的最初一句话用一个比喻归纳综合了垒球的魅力:“假如橄榄球是一曲交响乐的话,那么,垒球中所体现出来的活动好似一曲柔美的室内乐。”可见,本文次要讨论的是垒球的特点及其欣赏。 A不合错误,第一段也的确提到了差别观众对差别活动方式的偏好,但这只是用以引出对垒球的特性及欣赏的讨论。

  2. C细节题。文章第一段指出:很多人不喜好垒球,一提起垒球这些人就打哈欠乃至皱眉头。对他们来说,看垒球意味着眼巴巴地张望着身着活动装(outfit)的人呆立在球场上,东瞧瞧西望望,很少有什么(冲动民气的)事发作——没意思透了。他们以为如许的活动更合适上个世纪的人的口胃,不像橄榄球那样充溢生机。 A意为:“它只合适老年人的口胃。”留意:原文说的是合适上个世纪的人的口胃,二者意味纷歧样。 D意为:“它装腔作势、诙谐可笑。”这与说它gentlemanly(具有名流风姿,自持,即:没有冒犯或拼抢)纷歧样。

  3. B推测题。第三段指出,在电视上,垒球活动被切换成差别角度的画面,并且不时地运用重放、特写等电视制造技能,这毁坏了该活动的全体活动感,使观众无法将本人投入(project)到活动中去,以领会到这种寓动于静的活动之美。电视做不到这一点(The TV won’t do it for you),因而,电视上的垒球竞赛看上去(seems)孤孤独单、冷冷落清、沉平静静、渐渐腾腾。C、D不合错误,作者仅指出了差别活动有差别活动的特性,并未说哪种活动优于哪种。参阅文章最初一句。

  4. B推测题。第四段整个都在描绘垒球场上的一个场景:拿三垒的活动员假定对方全投出好球,作好了统统预备,但是对方投出的并不是好球。以是在当时候他的预备做不做都不会影响竞赛后果。他说原本可以闭上眼睛,意思便是B项所写的。A、C、D都不契合作者的意图。这道题需求完好地理解第四段内容才干作好选择。

  5. D推测题。在本文中,作者次要讨论了垒球的特性及欣赏,作者偏重指出的是:只要依据垒球的特性来欣赏它,才干领会到它的魅力。在他看来,察看到垒球竞赛中活动员的种种举措、垒球位之间的干系等是欣赏它的要害(第三段第二句)。只要从全体来掌握它,才干看到每一个小的举措、每一个眼神以致于“运动”的意义,也只要如许,才干满身心肠投入竞赛中,欣赏到它的魅力。可见,作者对垒球有很深的了解并且十分喜欢垒球。次要参考第三、四、五段。

  Among the more colorful characters of Leadville’s golden age were H.A.W.Tabor and his second wife,Elizabeth McCourt,better known as “Baby Doe”.Their history is fast becoming one of the legends of the Old West.Horace Austin Warner Tabor was a school teacher in Vermont.With his first wife and two children he left Vermont by covered wagon in 1855 to homestead in Kansas.Perhaps he did not find farming to his liking,or perhaps he was lured by rumors of fortunes to be made in Colorado mines.At any rate,a few years later he moved west to the small Colorado mining camp known as California Gulch,which he later renamed Leadville when he became its leading citizen. “Great deposits of lead are sure to be found here.”he said.

  As it turned out,it was silver,not lead,that was to make Leadville’s fortune and wealth. Tabor knew little about mining himself,so he opened a general store,which sold everything from boots to salt,flour,and tobacco.『It was his custom to “grubstake” prospective miners,in other words,to supply them with food and supplies,or “grub”, while they looked for ore,in return for which he would get a share in the mine if one was discovered.』①He did this for a number of years,but no one that he aided ever found anything of value.

  Finally one day in the year 1878,so the story goes,two miners came in and asked for “grub”. Tabor had decided to quit supplying it because he had lost too much money that way.These were persistent, however,and Tabor was too busy to argue with them. “Oh help yourself.One more time won’t make any difference,” He said and went on selling shoes and hats to other customers.the two miners took $17 worth of supplies,in return for which they gave Tabor a one-third interest in their findings.They picked a barren place on the mountainside and began to dig.After nine days they struck a rich vein of silver.Tabor bought the shares of the other two men,and so the mine belonged to him alone.This mine,known as the “Pittsburgh Mine,” made 1 300 000 for Tabor in return for his $17 investment.

  Later Tabor bought the Matchless Mine on another barren hillside just outside the town for $117 000.This turned out to be even more fabulous than the Pittsburgh,yielding $35 000 worth of silver per day at one time.Leadville grew.Tabor became its first mayor,and later became lieutenant governor of the state.

  1.Leadville got its name for the following reasons EXCEPT.

  A.because Tabor became its leading citizen

  B.because great deposits of lead is expected to be found there

  C.because it could bring good fortune to Tabor

  D.because it was renamed

  2.The word “grubstake” in paragraph 2 means.

  A.to supply miners with food and supplies

  B.to open a general store

  C.to do one’s contribution to the development of the mine

  D.to supply miners with food and supplies and in return get a share in the mine,if one was discovered

  3.Tabor made his first fortune.

  A.by supplying two prospective miners and getting in return a one-third interest in the findings

  B.because he was persuaded by the two miners to quit supplying

  C.by buying the shares of the other

  D.as a land speculator

  4. The underlying reason for Tabor’s life career is.

  A. purely accidental

  B. based on the analysis of miner’s being very poor and their possibility of discovering profitable mining site

  C. through the help from his second wife

  D. he planned well and accomplished targets step by step

  5.If this passage is the first part of an article,who might be introduced in the following part?

  A.Tabor’s life.

  B.Tabor’s second wife,Elizabeth McCourt.

  C.Other colorful characters.

  D.Tabor’s other careers.

  Vocabulary

  1.barren adj. 瘠薄的

  2.fabulous adj. 神话般的,难以相信的

  3.lure vt.引诱,诱惑

  4.deposit n.沉淀,储备

  5.grubstake v.下注

  长难句剖析

  ①【剖析】“It”是方式主语,真正的主语是“to”前面的句子,“while”引导工夫状语从句。

  【译文】他的通常做法是对来采矿的人“下注”,说得更明白一点便是泰勃供应这些人食品、用品等物品,作为报答,当他们采到矿后就会分给他一局部股份。

  答案与详解

  【漫笔粗心】本文次要报告霍塞斯·奥斯汀·沃纳·泰勃发财的故事。

  1. C细节题。由于Leadville可以为Tabor带来巨富。这一点不是Leadville得名的缘由,由于在文章第二段中,讲到这一点时,提及三个缘由:A.由于Tabor成为外地的住民代表人物,B.由于在Leadville有丰厚的铅的贮藏量。D.由于Leadville是由于Tabor紧张而起的名,唯独C没有,由于到厥后发明是银矿才给他带来巨富。

  2. D词汇题。第二段中grubstake的词义与D所述内容是相反的,即“供应探矿者资金,衣物,食品以及其他物品”。(可参阅英华大辞典修订第二版64页)但此处还增补地讲,作为报答,供应者可以取得矿中资源肯定份额。(见文章第二段第4行)

  3. A细节题。Tabor第一次真正发达是他为两名矿工提供赞助,为此他取得他们矿资源三分之一的股份。见文章第三段4-9行内容:两名开矿者从Tabor那边借走代价17美元的物品,作为报答,Tabor取得他们矿资源三分之一股份。于是两位开矿者在一座山旁的穷山恶水开端发掘,九天之后,发明了银的贫矿,于是Tabor又将两人的股份全买下,如许,银矿属于Tabor一团体一切,这个矿便是厥后闻名的“匹兹堡”矿。Tabor用17美元的投资换来了130万美元的播种。

  4. B推测题。由原文可知泰勃的财富泉源是有肯定必然性的,但是终究也是基于他创始的“grubstake”形式,由于A、D都不合错误,C更是没有依据,由于他还没有娶第二位夫人这统统就发作了。剖析泰勃的做法,会得出B选项所示的结论。

  5. B推测题。假如本文是一篇文章的第一局部,那么在文章的第二局部将引见谁呢?key可以从文章第一句剖析出来,在Leadville的黄金年月,其多彩的特点当中,Tabor及其第二任老婆Elizabeth McCourt是值得大书特书的,接着,文章都在报告有关H.A.W.Tabor发财致富的汗青,如先买下匹兹堡矿,后又买下Matchless矿,最初成为市长,代理州长,等等,以是触及到的满是男主人公,因而下边再讲的话,应成为女主人公即Elizabeth McCourt的天地了,她是Tabor的第二任老婆。这是瓜熟蒂落的事

  5)

  Open up most fashion magazines and you will see incredibly thin models with impossible hair and wearing unreasonably expensive, impracticably styled clothes. But shouldn't clothes be comfortably durable and make a principle of being simple for the individual who wears them? Why are we constantly told that we need to buy new clothes and add fresh pieces to our collection?

  Fashions change year after year so lots of people can make piles of money. If folks are convinced that they need a different look each season, that this year's sweater's length and shoes style are important, they can be persuaded to buy. The fashion industry would have you ignore your shortcomings and just make you feel beautiful and happy. In fact it is not only a phenomenon we can find in people's dressing.

  Fashion controls our lives. Fashion controls what we wear, what we eat, what we drink, the way we cut our hair, the makeup We buy and use, the color of the cars we drive. Fashion even controls our ideas.

  You don't believe me? How many. Of your friends are vegetarians? Why are they vegetarians? Because it is fashionable!

  Where does fashion come from? Often the reasons are quite logical. Scientists and historians study the fashions of the past and discover the secrets of each fashion.

  When girls see an attractive guy, their blood pressure rises and their lips become redder. That's why guys think that girls wearing lipstick are beautiful.

  Why do guys shave their heads? In the past soldiers shaved their heads to kill the insects that lived in their hair. Now guys shave their heads so that they look strong and masculine, like soldiers.

  People spend a lot of time and money on fashion. But are they wasting their money? Changes in fashion help to develop new technologies. Changes in style create work for people all over the world. Many people work in the fashion industry, particularly in the fashion capitals ofLondon,New York,ParisandMilan.

  And finally, fashion makes you feel good, doesn't it? When you are dressed in the latest style, dancing to the most fashionable music, after watching the latest hit film, you feel great, don't you?

  1. What's the author's viewpoint about the models and their hairstyles and clothes?

  A. Unbiased.  B. Indifferent.  C. Critical.   D. Appreciative.

  2. It is indicated by the author that clothes should be

  A. comfortable and durable.   B. new and fresh.  C. expensive and fashionable.

  D. simple and unique

  3. The fashion industry makes profits by

  A. selling the products at high prices.  B. creating a need in you.

  C. helping you get rid of your shortcomings.  D. making you look more beautiful.

  4. The author thinks what has been found about fashions by the scientists and the. historians is

  A. incredible. B. amazing. C. reasonable. D. creative.

  5. The passage mentions the advantages of fashion EXCEPT that

  A. it can help promote technological development.

  B. it enables people to remain up-to-date.

  C. it can create more job opportunities for people.

  D. it can make people achieve a

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