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2017年考研(一月联考)英语模仿试题及参考答案

泉源:退职研之家【中国退职研讨生招生网】公布工夫:2016-11-11

  关于退职考生来说,不论报考哪一所院校,想取得退职研讨生双证,许多人都需求参与英语测验。多做题是进步成果的办法之一,以下是退职研讨生招生信息网教师为各人整理的模仿试题,以供各人参考。  Section I Use of English

 

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  When television first began to expand, very few of the people who had become famous as radio commentators were equally effective on television. Some of the 1 they experienced when they were trying to 2 themselves to the new medium were technical. When working 3 radio, for example, they had become 4 to seeing on 5 of the listener. This 6 of seeing for others means that the 7 has to be very good at talking. 8 all, he has to be able to 9 a continuous sequence of visual images which 10 meaning to the sounds which the listener hears. In the 11 of television, however, the commentator sees 12 with the viewer. His role, therefore, is 13 different. He is there to make 14 that the viewer does not 15 some points of interest, to help him 16 on particular things, and to 17 the images on the television screen. 18 his radio colleague, he must know the 19 of silence and how to use it at those moments 20 the pictures speaks for themselves.

  1. A. difficultiesB. successesC. sufferingsD. incidents

  2. A. turnB. adaptC. alterD. modify

  3. A. onB. atC. with D. behind

  4. A. experiencedB. determinedC. establishedD. accustomed

  5. A. accountB. sideC. pointD. behalf

  6. A. efficiencyB. technologyC. artD. performance

  7. A. commentatorB. TV viewerC. speakerD. author

  8. A. OfB. ForC. AboveD. In

  9. A. inspire B. createC. causeD. perceive

  10. A. addB. applyC. affectD. reflect

  11. A. occasionB. eventC. factD. case

  12. A. somethingB. nothingC. everythingD. anything

  13. A. equallyB. completelyC. initiallyD. hardly

  14. A. definiteB. possibleC. sureD. clear

  15. A. loseB. depriveC. relieveD. miss

  16. A. focusB. attendC. followD. insist

  17. A. exhibitB. demonstrateC. exposeD. interpret

  18. A. LikeB. UnlikeC. AsD. For

  19. A. purposeB. goalC. valueD. intention

  20. A. ifB. when C. whichD. as

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  It’s plain common sense—the more happiness you feel, the less unhappiness you experience. It’s plain common sense, but it’s not true. Recent research reveals that happiness and unhappiness are not really two sides of the same emotion. They are two distinct feelings that, coexisting, rise and fall independently.

  People might think that the higher a person’s level of unhappiness, the lower their level of happiness and vice versa. But when researchers measure people’s average levels of happiness and unhappiness, they often find little relationship between the two.

  The recognition that feelings of happiness and unhappiness can co-exist much like love and hate in a close relationship may offer valuable clues on how to lead a happier life. It suggests, for example, that changing or avoiding things that make you miserable may well make you less miserable, but probably won’t make you any happier. That advice is backed up by an extraordinary series of studies which indicate that a genetic predisposition for unhappiness may run in certain families. On the other hand, researchers have found happiness doesn’t appear to be anyone’s heritage. The capacity for joy is a talent you develop largely for yourself.

  Psychologists have settled on a working definition of the feeling—happiness is a sense of subjective well-being. They have also begun to find out who’s happy, who isn’t and why. To date, the research hasn’t found a simple formula for a happy life, but it has discovered some of the actions and attitudes that seem to bring people closer to that most desired of feelings.

  Why is unhappiness less influenced by environment? When we are happy, we are more responsive to people and keep up connections better than when we are feeling sad. This doesn’t mean, however, that some people are born to be sad and that’s that. Genes may predispose one to unhappiness, but disposition can be influenced by personal choice. You can increase your happiness through your own actions.

  21. According to the text, it is true that

  [A] unhappiness is more inherited than affected by environment.

  [B] happiness and unhappiness are mutually conditional.

  [C] unhappiness is subject to external more than internal factors.

  [D] happiness is an uncontrollable subjective feeling.

  22. The author argues that one can achieve happiness by

  [A] maintaining it at an average level.

  [B] escaping miserable occurrences in life.

  [C] pursuing it with one’s painstaking effort.

  [D] realizing its coexistence with unhappiness.

  23. The phrase “To date” (Para. 4) can be best replaced by

  [A] As a result.

  [B] In addition.

  [C] At present.

  [D] Until now.

  24. What do you think the author believes about happiness and unhappiness?

  [A] One feels unhappy owing to his miserable origin.

  [B] They are independent but existing concurrently

  [C] One feels happy by participating in more activities.

  [D] They are actions and attitudes taken by human beings.

  25. The sentence “That’s that” (Para. 5) probably means: Some people are born to be sad

  [A] and the situation cannot be altered.

  [B] and happiness remains inaccessible.

  [C] but they don’t think much about it.

  [D] but they remain unconscious of it.

  Text 2

  Over the pastcentury, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or madeillegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, forthose as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination againstthose whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet。

  It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a bigadvantage over Zodiac cars when customers thumb through their phonedirectories. Less well known is the advantage that Adam Abbott has in life overZo? Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the halves of thealphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginningwith letters between A and K。

  Thus the American president and vice-president have surnamesstarting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bush’spredecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of thealphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of theseven heads of government of the G7 rich countries are alphabeticallyadvantaged (Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chrétien and Koizumi).The world’s three top central bankers (Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami) areall close to the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanesecharacters. As are the world’s five richest men (Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht)。

  Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all thespare time enjoyed by the alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets inearly. At the start of the first year in infant school, teachers seat pupilsalphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. Soshort-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked theimproving questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time thealphabetically disadvantaged may think they have had a lucky escape. Yet theresult may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention,as well as less confidence in speaking publicly。

  The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, theABCs proudly get their awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans mostpeople are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists for job interviews, electionballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be drawnup alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough throughthem。

  26. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAAA cars andZodiac cars?

  [A] A kind of overlooked inequality。

  [B] A type of conspicuous bias。

  [C] A type of personal prejudice。

  [D] A kind of brand discrimination。

  27. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?

  [A] In both East and West, names are essential to success.

  [B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zo? Zysman.

  [C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies’ names。

  [D] Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize。

  28. The 4th paragraph suggests that

  [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students。

  [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class.

  [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students.

  [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight。

  29. What does the author mean by “most people areliterally having a ZZZ” (Lines 2-3, Paragraph 5)?

  [A] They are getting impatient。

  [B] They are noisily dozing off。

  [C] They are feeling humiliated。

  [D] They are busy with word puzzles。

  30. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] People with surnames beginning with N to Z are oftenill-treated。

  [B] VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism。

  [C] The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way togo。

  [D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias。

  Text 3

  To paraphrase18th-century statesman Edmund Burke,“all that is neededfor the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing。”One suchcause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animalshave rights ruling out their use in research. Scientists need to respondforcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the publicand thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. Leaders of theanimal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on publicfunding, and few people understand the process of health care research. Hearingallegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed thatanyone would deliberately harm an animal。

  For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights boothat a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers notto use anything that comes from or is animals—no meat , no fur, nomedicines, Asked if she opposed immunizations, she wanted to know if vaccinescome from animal research. When assured that they do, she replied, “Then I wouldhave to say yes。” Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she said, “ Don’t worry,scientists will find some way of using computers。” Such well-meaningpeople just don't understand。

  Scientists must communicate their message to the public in acompassionate, understandable way—in human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need tomake clear the connection between animal research and a grandmother's hipreplacement, a father's bypass operation, a baby's vaccinations, and even apet's shots. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed toproduce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animalresearch seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst。

  Much can be done. Scientists could“adopt”middleschool classes and present their own research. They should be quick to respondto letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged andacquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research institutions could be openedto tours, to show that laboratory animals receive humane care. Finally, becausethe ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community shouldactively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as StephenCooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research,but all who receive medical treatment. If good people do nothing there is areal possibility that an uninformed citizenry will extinguish the preciousembers of medical progress。

  31. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke's words to

  [A] call on scientists to take some actions。

  [B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights。

  [C] warn of the doom of biomedical research。

  [D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement。

  32. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is

  [A] cruel but natural。

  [B] inhuman and unacceptable。

  [C] inevitable but vicious。

  [D] pointless and wasteful。

  33. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show thepublic’s

  [A] discontent with animal research。

  [B] ignorance about medical science。

  [C] indifference to epidemics。

  [D] anxiety about animal rights。

  34. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animalrights advocates, scientists should

  [A] communicate more with the public。

  [B] employ hi-tech means in research。

  [C] feel no shame for their cause。

  [D] strive to develop new cures。

  35. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is

  [A] a well-known humanist。

  [B] a medical practitioner。

  [C] an enthusiast in animal rights。

  [D] a supporter of animal research。

  Text 4

  I am a neuroscientist.I make a living by studying how the brain works.Although neuroscience has taken huge strides forward in the past decade,it is a long way from being able to address the problems dealt with by psychotherapy.3) Neuroscience cannot yet explain how we feel,and it is a long way from being able to prescribe what a miserable person must do to feel better.So,as a neuroscientist,I feel I should have a conclusion about the alternative approach.

  The first question I must answer is:“What do psychotherapies have to offer?”First,let us deal with the scientific angle.The best way to start is by assessing a claim that has cropped up several times over the year.It was first made of psychoanalysis,but it has been extended to other psychotherapies.It is the claim that psychoanalysis is the successor to religion,that it gives a scientific,rather than a superstitious,answer to the question of how best to lead a happy,fulfilled life.

  I would say this claim is at best half right.Psychoanalysis may indeed answer the question of how best to lead a happy life,but it has a lot more in common with religion than it has with science.In fact,psychoanalysis is not the successor to religion,it is just another religion.

  This assessment is based on the way religions and sciences deal with fundamental truths.In religions,truths are laid down by God and revealed to the prophets who,in their turn,pass them on to the faithful.They are sacred mysteries that cannot be questioned.In science,on the other hand,truths are nothing if not questionable.The laws of science are deduced from the results of experiments and can be used to predict new experimental results.If new results go against the prediction,they show the law to be false.A new experimental result,or a new theory for deriving predictions from the results,can change the accepted truths.If a scientific statement cannot,in principle,be proved wrong then it tells us nothing.

  Psychoanalysis suffers from just this problem.4)It is a maxim that our psychological problems are rooted in past conflicts,and that the repressed memories of these conflicts emerge from the unconscious in coded forms that can be interpreted by the analyst.But the codes are so obscure and so flexible that they defy rational explanation.There is no way the maxims could be disproved.They may not be sacred,but they are definitely mysteries.

  Many other therapies are based on untestable theories.Of course,that doesn‘t necessarily prevent them from working.There is no doubt thousands of people feel that psychoanalysis has helped them to lead fuller and happier lives.But the number of satisfied customers is no guide to scientific validity;if it were,religion would come out way ahead.

  36. The author considers his role as a neuroscientist____.

  [A]irrelevant to that of a psychoanalyst

  [B]different from that of a psychoanalyst

  [C]of the same importance as that of a psychotherapeutist

  [D]purely imaginary and impractical

  37. According to the author,psychoanalysis is another religion in that____.

  [A]it does nothing towards revealing fundamental truth

  [B]its conclusions are seldom capable of being tested

  [C]it has too many prophets and blind believers

  [D]it takes over many doctrines from religious beliefs

  38. By saying that“Psychoanalysis suffers from just this problem”(Para.5)the author means that____.

  [A]psychoanalysis deals with problems or conflicts inside the unconscious

  [B]the assertions in psychoanalysis cannot be disproved

  [C]psychoanalysis attaches no importance to doing experiments

  [D]psychoanalysts can not explain psychological problems to patients

  39. Which of the following is a science according to the author?

  [A]Neuroscience.

  [B]Psychoanalysis.

  [C]Psychotherapy.

  [D]None of the above.

  40. The main purpose of the passage is____.

  [A]to refute the practical value of psychoanalysis

  [B]to propose neuroscience as an alternative to psychoanalysis

  [C]to compare the theories of psychoanalysis with religious doctrines

  [D]to explain why psychoanalysis is not a science

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs int0 a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them int0 the numbered boxes. Paragraphs E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles,birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some oftheseanimals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is,they have no descendants alive now. 41. Very occasionally the rocks showimpression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonablyaccurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rockin which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the originalland, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  42. . Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocksformed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or nearwater. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, andinsects, of which we know nothing.

  43. . There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were coveredwith a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pairfor walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind ofshield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They wereusually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  44. . Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important.They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary homeof the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed offthe previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the DorsetCoast.

  45. .About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over andmost of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can tracethe evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many ofthe later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and werefeatured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.

  [A] The shell gush have a long history in the rock and many differentkinds are known.

  [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because theirbones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we cantell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first knownin the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago theamphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. Theywere giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy poolsin which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to thereptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms oflife on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animalsevolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world.

  [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all verysimple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and amongthese are the sealilies, relations of the starfishes, which had long armsand were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F] When an animal dies the body, its bones, or shell, may often becarried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud.If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered withmud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell becomeembedded and preserved.

  [G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks.Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidicsolution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stableform.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments int0 Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  There is no question that science-fiction writers have become more ambitious, stylistically and thematically, in recent years.(46) But this may have less to do with the luring call of academic surroundings than with changing market conditions—a factor that academic critics rarely take into account. Robert Silverberg, a former president of The Science Fiction Writers of America, is one of the most prolific professionals in a field dominated by people who actually write for a living. (Unlike mystery or Western writers, most science-fiction writers cannot expect to cash in on fat movie sales or TV tie-ins.) (47) Still in his late thirties, Silverberg has published more than a hundred books, and he is disarmingly frank about the relationship between the quality of genuine prose and the quality of available outlet. By his own account, he was “an annoyingly verbal young man” from Brooklyn who picked up his first science-fiction book at the age of ten, started writing seriously at the age of thirteen, and at seventeen nearly gave up in despair over his inability to break into the pulp magazines. (48) At his parents’ urging, he enrolled in Columbia University, so that, if worst came to worst, he could always go to the School of Journalism and “get a nice steady job somewhere”. During his sophomore year, he sold his first science-fiction story to a Scottish magazine named Nebula. By the end of his junior year, he had sold a novel and twenty more stories. (49) By the end of his senior year, he was earning two hundred dollars a week writing science fiction, and his parents were reconciled to his pursuit of the literary life. “I became very cynical very quickly,” he says. First I couldn’t sell anything, then I could sell everything. The market played to my worst characteristics. An editor of a schlock magazine would call up to tell me he had a ten-thousand-word hole to fill in his next issue. I’d fill it overnight for a hundred and fifty dollars. I found that rewriting made no difference. (50) I knew I could not possibly write the kinds of things I admired as a reader—Joyce, Kafka, Mann—so I detached myself from my work. I was a phenomenon among my friends in college, a published, selling author. But they always asked, “When are you going to do something serious?” —meaning something that wasn’t science fiction—and I kept telling them, “ When I’m financially secure.”

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Write an email to the editor of your local newspaper, stating your point of view on reading extensively.

  Your should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User “LI MING” instead.

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160——200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain it‘s intended meaning, and

  3) give your comments.

  Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  

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  参考答案:

  完型

  1. 【答案】A. difficulties

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。本句译文:当他们试图顺应这种新的媒体时他们遇到的困难是技能性的。

  2. 【答案】 B. adapt

  【剖析】本题测试构造型词义搭配。adapt oneself to sth. 使……顺应于:When you go to a foreign country, you should adapt yourself to new manners and customs.

  turn to 告急于 :You can turn to him for help when you are in trouble. (你有困难时可以告急于他)

  alter (局部的)改动,修正:Have you altered your mind? (你能否已改动主见?)

  modify (稍稍)修正,变卦:You have to modify the plan if necessary. 别的,modify 还可以作“修饰”解,如:Adverbs modify verbs. (副词修饰动词。)

  3.【答案】A. on

  【剖析】本题测试习用搭配。on radio 用无线电,经过播送(夸大举动手腕):The concert is broadcast on radio. on radio 在涵义上相称于 by radio, 比方,We can listen to music broadcast by radio. 别的,另有on the radio 意为:“经过播送,无线电播送中”,比方:1) I listen to the music on the radio. 2) There was good music on the radio last night.

  at, with, behind 与 radio 不克不及组成习用搭配,并且从上下文意思上看也不契合题意。

  4. 【答案】D. accustomed

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。be(或 become ,get ) accustomed to sth. or to doing sth.习气于:You will soon get accustomed to the climate here. (你会很快习气这里的天气的。)从上下文的逻辑意思和语法构造上看,experienced, determined, established 均不离题。

  5.【答案】D. behalf

  【剖析】本题测试习用搭配。on behalf of 代表,为了。 on account of 由于;on the side of 在…. 一边;be on the point of doing sth. 刚要做某事。

  6. 【答案】C. art

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。art 技艺,身手:the art of seeing for others 意为:“这种替他人看实况的技艺”。technology 技能,performance 上演,节目,实行,完成;efficiency 服从,均不契合题意。

  7.【答案】A. commentator

  【剖析】本题测试逻辑型词义搭配。

  本句译为:这种替他人看实况的技艺意味着,电视讲解员必需有高明的说话艺术。

  8.【答案】C.Above

  【剖析】本题测试习用搭配。above all (= most important) 最紧张的。 in all 统共:There are thirty students in all in the class. for all 是复合介词,意为“虽然”。

  9.【答案】B.create

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。create 创建,创立:1)They are struggling to create a new social order. 2) That would create a wrong impression. (那样会形成错误的印象) cause 惹起;inspire 鼓动;perceive 看法到,发觉到。

  本句译文:最要的是他必需擅长把看到的情形酿成一个个延续的画面,用声响把实况引见给观众。

  10.【答案】A.Add

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。add ….to 把…… 加到….. which add meaning to the sounds which the listener hears 意为“这些图像使得观众听到的声响具

  有肯定的意义”,即“听众听到理解说员用声响引见的实况内容”。

  11.【答案】D.case

  【剖析】本题测试习用搭配。in the case of 就……而言。留意 in the case of 和 in case of 在涵义和用法上的区别:in case of 万一发作…..。 in the event of(=in case of )假如发作。occasion 不克不及与in 搭配,但是可以与on 搭配,如:on the occasion of 在…..场所,值…..之际:He gave me a present on the occasion of my birthday.

  12. 【答案】C. everything

  【剖析】本题测试逻辑搭配。

  本句译为:但是,就电视而言 ,讲解员与电视观众都能看到全部图像。

  13.【答案】B. completely

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。completely different 完全差别。 equally, hardly, initially (后来,最后)均不契合题意。

  14.【答案】C. sure

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。make sure 查明,弄的确;后可接 of 或 about, 也可接从句,比方:1)Please make sure of the date of the next meeting.(请确定下次集会的工夫。) 2)Please make sure that the house is locked properly.(肯定要把房门锁好。)

  15.【答案】D.miss

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。miss vt. 错过。

  本句译为:电视讲解员要确保电视观众不错过一些精美局面,他要提示电视观众留意一些特别的事变并向观众解说电视荧幕上的图像。

  16.【答案】A. focus

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。focus on 凝视,会合。insist on 对峙(某种意见或见解);attend on 照顾,服侍:Two nurses attended on the patient. follow vt.前面不克不及接 on ,意为“追随”。

  17.【答案】D.interpret

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。interpret 表明,阐明:How can I interpret this behavior? exhibit 展览,展现;demonstrate vt. 演示,表现,扮演;expose vt. 表露。

  18.【答案】B. unlike

  【剖析】本题测试词义型构造搭配。unlike 不像……, 和…….差别。从上下文逻辑意思来看,本句是讲电视实况讲解员与无线电实况讲解员转播方法差别,他依照电视图像停止解说。可见,只能选择 unlike.

  19. 【答案】C. value

  【剖析】本题测试词义搭配。value 代价,有效性。电视实况讲解员在图像很清晰时,就不用再作表明。这时“缄默”就起了奇妙的作用,让观众本人去欣赏,领会和批评。可见,此处只能选 value. purpose (目标),goal(目的)和intention(意图,意向)均不契合题意。

  20.【答案】B. when

  【剖析】本题测试逻辑搭配。句中when 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 moments, 意为“在图像自身了如指掌的时分”。

  本句译为:他和无线电讲解员状况差别,他必需晓得缄默的作用,在电视图像了如指掌的时分怎样应用这种作用。

  Text 1

  一、文章粗心与构造

  此文次要讨论幸福感与不幸福感的干系。第一、二段指出,幸福感与不幸福感并不是统一情绪的两个方面, 而是两种共存的差别感觉, 两者之间没有几多干系。第三至五段提到,不幸福感的遗传禀性能够存在于某些家庭,而幸福感则次要靠后天培育。幸福感是一种客观感觉,天生感触不幸福的人也可经过本人的高兴添加幸福感。

  此文构造上的明显特点是各段中均运用转机词“but”或“however”,前半段的叙说作为铺垫,后半段以转机词引出作者的观念。

  二、试题剖析

  21. [A]判别题。此文第三段第三、四句说,研讨标明,不幸福感的遗传禀性能够存在于某些家庭。幸福感好像与遗传有关。由此可以判定,A“不幸福感是遗传的,而不是受情况影响的”准确。

  B“幸福与不幸福互为条件”,与第一段末句相悖;C“不幸受内部要素而不是外部要素影响”,与A项相反;D“幸福是一种不行控的客观感觉”错误,幸福并非“uncontrollable”,它可以培育(三段末句)。

  22. [C]细节题。 题干中的要害词是“achieve happiness by…”。文中有两处对此停止了答复:第三段末句“取得高兴的才能次要是本人培育的”,第五段末句“你可以经过本人的举动添加幸福”。因而C“不懈高兴地寻求它”契合文意。

  A“坚持普通的幸福水平”,B“躲避生存中末路人的事变”,D“看法到它与不幸福共存”,均不准确。

  23. [D]词义题。词语意义的判别必根据上下文:其前一句“他们也开端发明谁幸福谁不幸福及其缘由”,厥后一句“研讨尚未找到幸福生存的复杂定律,但业已发明某些举动和态度好像会更使人们靠近最盼望的那种感觉”, 且句中谓语皆为如今完成时。故D“迄今为止”在意义和构造上皆适当。

  A“后果”,B“别的”,C“现在”,均不行取。

  24. [B] 判别题。题干中的要害词是作者的believes(见解)。根据第一段末句“他们是两种差别的情绪, 二者共存,各自增减”判别, B“他们各自独立又同时存在”契合作者见解。

  A“人们由于身世清贫而感触不幸福”,分歧文意;C“人们参与更多的运动可感触幸福”是对actions的误解;D“它们是人类接纳的举动和态度”, 对第四段末句的误解,举动和态度自身并非幸福或不幸福。

  25. [A] 句意题。“and that’s that”是对前半句的进一步一定,意为“便是如许;便是这么回事”。据此,只要A“状况无法改动”契合句意。

  B“幸福仍然难以取得”,C“但他们对此思索未几”,D“但他们对此未认识到”。

  TEXT 2

  26. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAAA cars andZodiac cars?

  作者用“AAAA汽车”和“Zodiac汽车”来例证什么?

  [A] A kind of overlooked inequality. 某种被无视的不屈等。

  [B] A type of conspicuous bias. 某种不言而喻的成见。

  [C] A type of personal prejudice. 某种团体的成见。

  [D] A kind of brand discrimination. 某种品牌上的鄙视。

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 判别题。

  【剖析】 本题考察作者的写作意图,即作者用这两个例子试图来证明什么题目。通凡人们只要在需求证明某个方面的题目时才会援用例子,那么作者用这两个例子终究是为了阐明什么题目呢?实在考生在读完第一段之后就应该比拟清晰作者的意图了,即他正在试图证明按字母排序这一荫蔽的不公道景象。[B]“某种不言而喻的成见”错在“不言而喻”。[C]“某种团体的成见”错在“团体”。[D]“某种品牌上的鄙视”是成心在偷换观点,举这两个例子不是为了阐明哪一个品牌好,而是为了证明字母次序主义的存在与危害。

  27. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?

  从文章前三段,我们可以推测出什么?

  [A] In both East and West, names are essential to success。

  在西方和东方,名字关于乐成来说都是至关紧张的。

  [B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zo? Zysman.

  Zo.Zysman的失败应该归罪于字母表。

  [C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies’ names。

  主顾通常很注意公司的名字。。

  [D] Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize。

  某种鄙视过于奇妙以致于难以被人发明。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 文章构造与举例阐明题。

  【剖析】 考生只要通读作者要求的这三段,才干够得出准确结论。第一段提出“字母次序主义”这一说法,第二段举例阐明这种景象在生存中的体现,第三段举例阐明“字母次序主义”在名流身上的表现。在上题中说过,举例都是为了证明某个观念,也便是说,第二和第三段都是为了证明第一段提出的论点。从几个要害的单词、词组“insidious”,“unaware”以及“less well known”我们可以推测出准确选项[D]“某种鄙视过于奇妙以致于难以被人发明。”。选项[A]显得过于相对。将某一团体或许某一类人的失败全部归罪于字母是有失偏颇的,文章中只是说,由于名字靠后,有一些先生能够容易被教师无视,从而招致学习的失败,但是这不克不及阐明都是字母的责任,并且这一点曾经不在前三段了。选项[C]这一说法也因此偏概全,文中只是说主顾容易遭到字母排序的影响从而留意到排名靠前的出租车公司罢了。

  28. The 4th paragraph suggests that 第四段表示

  [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students。

  愈加智慧的先生常常被发问。

  [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class。

  姓氏在字母排序中处于优势的先生常常逃课。

  [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students。

  教师应该存眷一切的先生。

  [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight。

  先生应该依照目力的优劣来排座位。

  【答案】 C

  【考点】 推测题。

  【剖析】 文章中没有间接给出一个答案,考生必需本人经过透彻的了解原文才干得出结论。第四段以为“这不是偶合,按字母表次序排名靠后而亏损的人在专业工夫凭幻想出一种实际以为这种倒运事儿很早就开端了。在幼儿学校第一年之始,教师为了较为容易记着先生的名字,就按字母表次序由前去后给先生排座位。因而远视的小Zysman就被插在了后排,如许一来,大意的教员提出的有助于进步的题目就很少会问到他。这时,按字母表次序排名靠后的先生还以为他们能躲避教师的题目很侥幸。但是,后果能够便是成果欠佳,由于这种先生失掉的团体存眷较少,同时当众发言时的决心也缺乏”。至此,作者再一次试图论证其论点,即“依照字母排序是荫蔽的不屈等”。并且这还招致了先生不克不及够失掉公道的教诲时机,也便是在说,教师们该存眷存眷那些按字母排序亏损的人了,因而选项[C]比拟契合文意。[D]是一种貌似准确实践上以偏概全的说法,没有到达作者想要表达的高度,是一种比拟浅薄的表象的见解,有些考生没有细心精读原文,就能够受其影响。

  29. What does the author mean by “most people areliterally having a ZZZ”(Lines 2-3, Paragraph 5)?

  “most people are literally having a ZZZ”(第五段第二、三行)是什么意思?

  [A] They are getting impatient. 他们急不行耐。

  [B] They are noisily dozing off. 他们鼾声大作。

  [C] They are feeling humiliated. 他们觉得遭到了屈辱。

  [D] They are busy with word puzzles. 他们忙于拼字游戏。。

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 推测题。

  【剖析】 看第五段“这种侮辱持续着。在大学的结业仪式上,姓名首字母是A、B、C的先生自豪地起首领到奖品;等轮到Zysman们领奖品的时分,大少数人差未几都在‘ZZZ’了”。在东方漫画中,“ZZZ”便是表现打鼾,这是考察考平生日的英语学习中能否对东方文明配景知识赐与充足的存眷。

  30. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  依据本文,以下哪一种说法是准确的?

  [A] People with surnames beginning with N to Z are often ill-treated。

  姓氏字母为N到Z的人常常遭到不公道的看待。

  [B] VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism。

  东方世界的紧张人士从字母次序主义中获益颇丰。

  [C] The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go。

  消弭字母次序主义的活动依然任重而道远。

  [D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias。

  但凡依照字母排序把事物陈列的做法能够会招致有意识的成见。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 现实细节题。

  【剖析】 本题考察的是现实细节,并且选项跨度很大,只要在通篇阅读本文而且获得深入看法之后,我们才有能够完全答对本道标题。选项[A]这一说法的题目出在作者提到“A-K”,而不是到“M”,并且“ill-treated”这个单词有点过了,由于字母次序主义招致的不公道与客观的优待照旧有很大区另外。选项[B]这一说法的题目出在水平的限定上。文章中提到很多出色人士在字母排序中靠前,但是这只可以说这些人相比字母靠后的人能够更容易乐成,并且东方世界的紧张人士这个主语太大了,它也包罗字母靠后的那些紧张人士,并且用“gain a great deal”都显得过于夸大。[C]这个说法与作者的意图差别,作者只是在论证字母次序主义如许一种不屈等景象,但是并没有提出要消弭字母次序主义。只要选项[D]还比拟公道,来自于首段的第二、三句。

  难句剖析:

  1. This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers todiscrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lowerhalf of the alphabet。

  【构造剖析】该句子的主句是“this refers to discrimination”。主语“this”和谓语“refersto”之间拔出了介宾短语“for those”作状语,“those”后随着描述词短语“unaware of…”作其定语,宾语“discrimination”后跟介宾短语“against those…”作定语,“those”后又有“whose”引导的定语从句来修饰。

  2. Thus the American president and vice-president have surnamesstarting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bush’spredecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of thealphabet against just 16 in the second half。

  【构造剖析】“and”将本句分为两个并列分句,第一个分句即“American president and vice-president have surnames”,第二个分句是“26of…had surnames”。第一个分句的宾语“surnames”后是如今分词构造“starting with”作定语;第二个分句宾语紧跟的介词构造“in the first half of the alphabet”作定语。

  全文翻译:

  在过来的一个世纪里林林总总的不公和鄙视遭到了非难或定为合法。但是有一种荫蔽的不公和鄙视方式还在盛行:字母次序主义。关于尚未认识到其危害的人来说,它指的是针对那些姓氏肇始字母位于字母表后半部的人的鄙视。

  人们早已晓得在客户翻阅德律风簿时,名叫AAAA的出租汽车公司要比Zodiac出租汽车公司有很大的良好性。至于在生存方面,一个名叫Adam Abbott的人较之一个名为Zo? Zysman的人占了多大的劣势就不那么为人所知了。英语的姓名固然在字母表的前后两局部的散布相称均匀,但出色人物的姓名的首字母在A与K之间的却多得可疑。

  云云这般,美国的总统和副总统的姓氏辨别因此B和C字母开始。乔治·布什的后任有二十六位(包罗其父)的姓氏均在字母表的前半局部,而姓氏在字母表后半部的却仅有十六位。愈加令人注目的是七国领袖中有六位在其姓氏按字母表次序排名时靠前(Berlusconi,Blair,Bush,Chirac,Chrétien,Koizumi)。世界三大地方银里手(Greenspan,Duisenberg,Hayami)的姓氏首字母全都靠近字母表的上端,三人之中有一人名字虽然用的这天文,也是云云。世界上最富有的前五位状况也是云云(Gates,Buffett,Allen,Ellison,Albrecht)。

  这仅仅是偶合吗?按字母表次序排名靠后而亏损的人在专业工夫凭幻想出一种实际,以为这种倒运事儿很早就开端了。在幼儿学校第一年之始,教师为了较为容易记着先生的名字,就按字母表次序由前去后给先生排座位。因而远视的小Zysman就被插在了后排,如许一来,大意的教员提出的有助于进步先生才能的题目就很少会问到他。这时,按字母表次序排名靠后的先生还以为他们能躲避教师的题目很侥幸。但是,后果能够便是成果欠佳,由于这种先生失掉的团体存眷较少,同时当众发言时的决心也缺乏。

  这种羞耻还在持续着。在大学的结业仪式上,姓名首字母是A、B、C的先生自豪的起首领到奖品;等轮到Zysman们领奖品的时分,大少数人几乎都在鼾声大作了。求职口试、推举投票、集会发言或参与集会等诸多名单,也是按字母表次序排序,当人们费力地向下检查时,兴味随之索然。

  text3

  31. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke’s words to

  作者在开篇援用EdmundBurke的话是为了

  [A] call on scientists to take some actions. 号令迷信家接纳举动。

  [B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights. 批判被误导的植物权益奇迹。

  [C] warn of the doom of biomedical research. 正告生物医学研讨的恶运。

  [D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement. 展现植物权益活动的成功。

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 作者意图题。

  【剖析】 从第一段我们可以看到EdmundBurke所说的话的意思便是“一个被误导的奇迹假如要乐成,它独一需求的是坏人碌碌无为”。然后作者紧接着写道“如今就有如许的一个奇迹:植物权益维护,他们试图制止生物医学运用植物”。随后呈现要害句“迷信家们需求接纳举动回应这些宣扬者”。这实践上便是一个号令,以是答案应该是[A]。

  32. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is

  被误导的人通常会以为运用植物停止研讨是

  [A] cruel but natural. 残暴但是很平凡的。

  [B] inhuman and unacceptable. 不人性并且难以承受的。

  [C] inevitable but vicious. 不行防止但是罪恶的。

  [D] pointless and wasteful. 有意义并且是糜费的。

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 推测题。

  【剖析】 特性词汇“tend tothink”很明白通知我们出题人想考察考生可否推测出受误导的人们是怎样对待用植物做实验的。由于文中并没有间接给出答案,如许的标题的解题要害是寻觅和题干有关的信息,然后经过推理衔接起来这些能够是疏散的信息。本题题干中的一个要害词组是“misled people”,起首需求定位,看看“misled people”都有什么见解,然后再做判别。第一段最初一句说“当人们听到医学实行残暴看待植物的控告时,很多人都不明确为什么有人会成心损伤植物”。第二段是一个详细的被误导的祖母般的密斯的例子,但是文中只是说她支持用植物来做研讨。第三段最初一句十分要害:“关于他们来说,植物实行说得好是糜费,说得欠好是残暴”。从以上的剖析可以看出,遭到误导的人们以为用植物做研讨是严酷的、难以想象的。四个选项中,[B]最契合原文。[A]中固然提到了“cruel”,但是“natural”不合错误,由于被误导的人们不行能以为那是平凡的事变。[C]说的是“不行防止的,但是罪恶的”,也不准确,由于文章中没有提到不行防止这个说法。[D]项说的是“毫有意义,糜费的”,文中没有提到毫有意义这个意思。

  33. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show thepublic’s

  老太太的例子被用来阐明大众

  [A] discontent with animal research. 对植物研讨的不满。

  [B] ignorance about medical science. 对医学的无知。

  [C] indifference to epidemics. 对盛行病的淡漠。

  [D] anxiety about animal rights. 对植物权柄的担心。

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 作者意图题。

  【剖析】 这个例子说的是一位老太太向各人分发传单,召唤各人不要用任何来自于植物或在植物身上实验过的工具。当问及能否支持运用疫苗时,老太大说,若疫苗也泉源于植物,那么就不该运用疫苗,盛行病自有迷信家们用盘算机来处理。可见老太太对迷信的无知。而她的这种无知是很广泛的。作者在第二段最初一句话感慨“这些好意人压根儿就不明确”,以是答案为[B]。[A]说的是大众对植物实验的不满。但是,老太太的例子不只仅是为了阐明这一点。这个论据反应的是什么论点呢?从全文来看,作者的目标不是为了写大众有多愤恨,而在于指出大众不满的本源——对医学研讨不理解,然后召唤迷信家们针对这个本源接纳举动。以是老太太的例子反应的是大众的无知。

  34. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animalrights advocates, scientists should作者以为,迷信家在面对植物权益维护宣扬者的应战时,应该

  [A] communicate more with the public. 更多地与大众交换。

  [B] employ hi-tech means in research. 在研讨中接纳高科技手腕。

  [C] feel no shame for their cause. 对本人的奇迹不感触耻辱。

  [D] strive to develop new cures. 高兴开辟新的医治办法。

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 作者态度题。

  【剖析】 在解答这类标题的时分,考生应该依照题干要害词去寻觅答案线索能够的地点地。本题要害词“challenge from animal rights advocates”,以及“scientistsshould”,解题线索可在最初两段中找出。作者向迷信家们提出的发起都是有助于他们与大众更好的交换。答案很分明,是[A]。选项[B]、[C]、[D]貌似公道,实在文中都没有提到。

  35. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is

  从本文中我们得知StephenCooper是一位

  [A] a well-known humanist. 闻名的人性主义者。

  [B] a medical practitioner. 医疗从业职员。

  [C] an enthusiast in animal rights. 植物权利的狂热者。

  [D] a supporter of animal research. 植物研讨的支持者。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 推测题。

  【剖析】 起首依据“StephenCooper”定位到最初一段,我们可以找到线索“Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients... StephenCooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research.。.”。从这句话中,我们晓得“Cooper”是个名流,也是病患者,他已经高度歌颂过植物研讨的代价。以是,我们可以推测出他是支持植物研讨的。准确答案是选项[D]。

  难句剖析:

  1. All that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is thatgood people do nothing。

  【构造剖析】本句的主句构造是“all… is that…”。“all”的后边接了一个“that”引导的定语从句。第二个“that”引导的是表语从句。这句话的意思了解也有难度,尤其是放在第一句,许多人由于没有可以读懂这一句的意思从而影响了前面的了解。“misguided”的意思是“被误导的”。

  2. Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates,whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances inhealth knowledge and care.

  【构造剖析】句子的骨干是“Scientists need to respond to animal rights advocates”,“whose”引导一个定语从句,指代“animalrights advocates”。“are confusing”和“(are)threatening”是并列的谓语。单词“thereby”的意思是“因而,从而, 在那方面”。

  3. For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rightsbooth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouragedreaders not to use anything that comes from or is tested in animals—no meat, nofur, no medicines。

  【构造剖析】句子的主句是“a woman was distributing a brochure”。“staffing”是如今分词做后置定语;“brochure”后边的“that”引导一个定语从句,修饰“brochure”。“anything”后边的“that”也接一个定语从句,限定修饰“anything”。“staff”在此句中作动词运用,“staff”在用作名词的时分表现“员工,职员”,但是在用作动词的时分,就表现“充任职员”。“booth”实践上指的便是“摊位”或“摊棚”,“fair”便是一次“展销会”或许“集市”。

  4. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed toproduce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animalresearch seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst。

  【构造剖析】本句的主句构造是“animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst”。“as well as newtreatments and vaccines”此局部是一个状语。“those”的后边跟了一个“who”引导的定语从句。“at best”的意思是“最好的状况下”,“at worst”的意思是“最坏的状况下”。

  全文翻译:

  18世纪政治家埃德蒙·柏克曾说过相似如许的话,“一个被误导的奇迹假如要乐成,它独一需求的是坏人碌碌无为”。如今就有如许的一个奇迹,正在寻求停止生物医学的研讨,由于它们的一种实际说,植物有制止本人被用于实行的权益。迷信家应该强无力的回应植物权益宣扬者,由于他们的言论混杂了大众视听,从而要挟到卫生知识和卫生保健的提高。植物权益活动的向导者将锋芒指向生物医学研讨,缘由在于生物医学研讨依赖大众资金的赞助,而且很少有人明白医学研讨的进程。当人们听到医学实行优待植物的控告时,很多人都很狐疑为什么有人会成心损伤植物。

  比方,在近期的一次集市上,一位老奶奶为植物权益宣传点分发小册子。奉劝人们不要运用植物成品和植物实行成品——肉类,毛皮,药物。当她被问到能否支持免疫接种时,她问疫苗能否来主动物实行。当原告知确实云云,她答复道,“那么我不得不说,是的,我支持接种”。当被问到瘟疫迸发怎样办时,她说,“不必担忧,迷信家会找到一种办法,用盘算机来处理题目”。看,如许好意的人基本就不明确为什么做生物医学研讨。

  迷信家必需把他们的意思转达给大众,而且要有情感的和运用浅显易懂的言语,也便是说,要运用普通人可以明确的言语,而不要运用分子生物学的术语。我们需求阐明植物研讨与祖母的髋骨置换术、父亲的心脏搭桥手术、婴儿的免疫接种、乃至宠物的针剂注射之间都亲密相干。关于那些不晓得需求植物研讨来做这些医治以及停止新的医治和研讨新的疫苗的人来说,植物实行说得好是糜费,说得欠好是残暴。

  有许多事变可以做。迷信家可以进入中学讲堂,展现他们的实行后果。他们应该对报刊的读者来信实时做出反响,以避免植物权益的误导言论在毫无质疑的状况下横行,从而取得一副真理的面目面貌。科研机构应该对外开放,让人观赏,向人们展现实行室里的植物取得了人性的照顾。最初,由于终极决议要素是病人,医疗研讨机构不只应该积极夺取斯蒂芬·库柏如许的名流的支持——他对植物实行的代价英勇地停止了一定——并且应该夺取一切承受医治的病人的支持。假如坏人碌碌无为,一群不明原形的大众真的有能够毁灭医学提高的珍贵火种。

  text 4

  1. [B] 在第一段作者指出,本人是一个神经迷信家,随后阐明了这门迷信现在存在的范围性。最初一句指出,作为一个神经学方面的迷信家,他以为有须要谈一下别的一种办法终究是个什么工具。这里所谓the alternative approach指上文提到的心思疗法(psychotherapy)。依据第二段的阐述,心思剖析是心思疗法的一个分支。而在第三段,作者将心思剖析称为一种宗教,以为它不是迷信。

  2. [B] 第四段阐明了为什么心思剖析是一种宗教而不是一门迷信。由本段可以看出,迷信与宗教的基本区别在于:迷信是能被实行证明真伪的,而宗教则不克不及。第五、六段接着罗列了心思剖析与宗教的类似性。

  3. [B] 句中this problem即指上一段最初一句提到的不克不及被证明真伪。

  4. [A] 意为:神经迷信。在第一段,作者称本人为神经学迷信家。由此看来,在二心目中,神经迷信是一门迷信,固然它如今另有很多题目处理不了。实践上,勇于供认其范围性,才是研讨一门迷信应有的态度。而自称什么题目都能处理的心思剖析学被作者称为一种宗教。别的,在第二段第四句,作者运用了other psychotherapies如许的说话,阐明作者将心思剖析看做是心思疗法的一个分支,二者都不是迷信。

  5. [D] 第一段最初一句提出本文旨在阐明的次要题目,文章最初一段是文章的结论,此中尤其是该段最初一句。

  part B

  41.【剖析】选[B]。本题次要经过句组干系的了解来解答。跳过空格阅读第一段可以看出,本段次要报告了史前植物的存在(第一句)、局部品种的灭尽(空格前第二句,句中they have no descendants alive now是对extinct一词的表明)以及从化石(rocksas fossils)中我们所能发明的数百万年前就去世失了的植物的准确印记(空格后第一句)和事先的地貌及天气特性(空格后第二句)。由此,我们就看到了空格前后两个句组所叙说内容之间的抵牾和内容上的缺乏:1)既然曾经"灭尽",怎样还能理解有关的这统统呢?阐明空格前的句子与其空格地点的句子之间具有转机干系。2)空格后第一句中the rocks指的又是什么石头呢?需求在前有所提及,即准确选项中应包括有rock这个词。可以同时满意这两个条件的只要选项[B]。[A]、[E]、[G]中也提到了rock,但在句际干系上与前后句组不相符合,故不准确。以是准确答案只能是[B]。

  42.【剖析】选[F]。文章第一段阐明了化石是我们研讨史前植物的次要根据,而本段则次要阐明了这些化石的构成。空格后"简直我们所知的一切化石都是在由于水作用而构成的岩石中保管上去的 (Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocksformed by water action) "一句是一个结论性表述,之前应有"水作用构成的岩石(rocks formed by water action)"这一进程的细节描绘。[F]的内容恰好阐明去世去植物的遗体是怎样被水和泥沙保管上去的,与此恰相符合,以是选[F]。此题极易错选[G],由于[G]一开端就有how fossils are preserved,前面又呈现了impression一词,在用词上呈现分明的复现景象。 但是[G]前面讲的是植物遗体上的无机构造"organism"能够转化成的几种方式,这与下文的内容不相符合,故不选[G]。

  43.【剖析】选[E]。本题选择的线索有

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